Want to meet Archimedes this weendkend? Check out Archimedes events:
Am 6. Oktober 2018 kannst du dich beim Open Day von 09:30 - 15:00 Uhr über die Lehramtsstudiengänge der School of European Teacher Education (Teil der HU University of Applied Sciences) informieren. Außerdem kannst du dich mit Dozenten und Studenten unterhalten und dich am Campus umsehen Über folgende Studiengänge kannst du dich informieren: Lehramtsstudium Sek I - Deutsch Lehramtsstudium Sek I - Englisch Lehramtsstudium Sek I - Englisch und Biologie Lehramtsstudium Sek I - Englisch und Deutsch Lehramtsstudium Sek I - Englisch und Französisch Lehramtsstudium Sek I - Englisch und Geografie Lehramtsstudium Sek I - Englisch und Spanisch Kontakt und Informationen Telefon: +31-88-481 81 81 E-Mail: [email protected] Web: www.international.hu.nl Besucheradresse HU University of Applied Sciences Instituut Archimedes Padualaan 97 Utrecht Niederlande
THE SCIENCE OF ARCHIMEDES Traveling Exhibit September 15, 2018 – January 7, 2019 Archimedes’ time, known as the Hellenistic era, started with the period of peace which began following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. While amassing a huge empire, Greek civilization achieved substantial scientific advancement. The merger of Egyptian and Mesopotamian technical knowledge (construction and arithmetic skills) with sophisticated Greek geometry gave the Greeks the military edge over their enemies. During this period, Greek mathematicians led by Archimedes of Syracuse, revolutionized the world, inventing new machines for engineering and for war. They built lighthouses, harnessed the Sun’s energy using mirrors and discovered ways to balance large objects in water (buoyancy) in order to build huge ships. Using geometry, they were able to measure the Earth’s distance from the Sun, the size of our planet and even track its moment around the Sun. Our newest blockbuster exhibition allows visitors to explore the science of Archimedes for themselves through interactive exhibits curated into four themes: Machines of the Ancient World, Energy Machines, The Power of Shapes’ and Archimedes’ Legacy. Machines of the Ancient World - Visitors can use the ancient legendary machines associated with Archimedes’ life such as the ballista, and the iron-hands and burning mirrors used for sinking ships, as well as machines for building the great Pyramids of Egypt. Energy Machines - These ancient machines were designed to work with the energy of gravity, wind flow, water flow and solar rays. Also learn about ancient holograms, huge dishes for sound propagation, the lost lighthouse of Alexandria and the secret behind Archimedes’ mechanical paradox in which objects roll up hill. The Power of Shapes - Archimedes’ mastery of geometry allowed him to create practical technology that revolutionized his world. In this section, visitors can have fun with geometry, solve puzzles and use the building blocks of the third century. Archimedes Legacy - Archimedes’ lasting impact can be clearly seen through the examination of the legends of science who studied his writings and took his ideas further. In this section, we delve into the works of the two most notable scientists influenced by his work: Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo Galilei.
Brothers, You are cordially invited to join Archimedes Lodge at their Institution Ceremony on Monday, June 25, 2018 at the Pasadena Scottish Rite. Archimedes is being created with a goal of exploring the first three degrees of the Scottish Rite system under Masonic Education. SAVE THE DATE & Buy your tickets at the link listed below. This is a non-tiled event for Masons and Invited Guests. Schedule of Events: 6:00 PM - Appetizers 6:30 PM - Ceremony of Institution 7:30 PM - Hors D'Ourves / Social with CA Grand Officers to follow Ceremony Attire: Officers - Tuxedoes Guests - Formal / Business A portion of proceeds will be used to benefit the Pasadena Scottish Rite Childhood Language Center.
Our Women's Night are held on the first Tuesday of from 6 pm - 12 am. Massages, platzas, body scrubs, and many more relaxing treatments are available. Join us for a complimentary 60 minute yoga class at 7 pm in our lounge.
Khép lại một năm học, mùa hè là khoảng thời gian đầy ý nghĩa để trẻ vừa vui chơi, vừa tham gia những hoạt động khám phá, trải nghiệm cuộc sống muôn màu. Tuy nhiên, cuộc sống hiện đại khiến phụ huynh bận rộn, ít có thời gian để đồng hành và đem đến cho các con một mùa hè bổ ích, lý thú. Nhằm đáp ứng nhu cầu của các bậc cha mẹ, trường Tiểu học Archimedes Academy trân trọng giới thiệu chương trình trại hè "Summer Camp 2018" dành cho học sinh lứa tuổi Tiểu học. ĐỐI TƯỢNG: Dành cho học sinh sinh năm 2008 -> 2012 THỜI GIAN: 02 tuần, từ ngày 04/06 đến ngày 15/06 (nghỉ thứ Bảy và Chủ nhật) MỤC TIÊU: - Thông qua các hoạt động vui chơi và học tập sáng tạo, trẻ được tận hưởng những ngày hè thú vị, nhiều niềm vui và ý nghĩa bên bạn bè, thầy cô. - Giúp trẻ rèn luyện một số kỹ năng cần thiết trong học tập và sinh hoạt, phục vụ tốt cho sự phát triển tự lập của trẻ. Tất cả các hoạt động được truyền tải bằng tiếng Anh, giúp phát triển năng lực tiếng Anh, mở rộng vốn từ và tự tin giao tiếp. - Tăng cường hoạt động thể chất để trẻ được rèn luyện sức khoẻ và các thói quen tốt, hình thành lối sống tích cực trong mùa hè. CHƯƠNG TRÌNH HỌC: Mang tính trải nghiệm cao với các môn học thú vị: SCIENCE – SMART GAMES – STORY TELLING – PRESENTATION SKILLS – PRACTICAL LIFE – COOKING – ARTS AND CRAFTS – MOVIES – SWIMMING – PHYSICAL EXERCISE (Chi tiết xin mời xem tại đây: http://aschool.edu.vn/su-kien-en/summer-camp-2018-fun-playing-fun-learning/) ĐĂNG KÝ THAM GIA: - Thời gian đăng ký: đến hết ngày 15/05/2018 - Đăng ký trực tiếp tại Văn phòng trường Archimedes Academy – Trương Công Giai, Cầu Giấy, Hà Nội hoặc đăng ký trực tuyến tại đây: https://goo.gl/J1nqxn - Hỗ trợ thông tin: Cô Hạnh – ĐT: 091 436 9376
Any body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid experiences an upthrust equal to, but opposite in sense to, the weight of the fluid displaced.
A large part of Archimedes' work in engineering arose from fulfilling the needs of his home city of Syracuse. The Greek Writer Athenaeus of Naucratis described how King Hiero II commissioned Archimedes to design a huge ship, the Syracusia, which could be used for luxury travel, carrying supplies, and as a naval warship. The Syracusia is said to have been the largest ship built in classical antiquity. According to Athenaeus, it was capable of carrying 600 people and included garden decorations, a gymnasium and a temple dedicated to the goddess Aphrodite among its facilities. Since a ship of this size would leak a considerable amount of water through the hull, the Archimedes' screw was purportedly developed in order to remove the bilge water. Archimedes' machine was a device with a revolving screw-shaped blade inside a cylinder. It was turned by hand, and could also be used to transfer water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation canals. The Archimedes' screw is still in use today for pumping liquids and granulated solids such as coal and grain. The Archimedes' screw described in Roman times by Vitruvius may have been an improvement on a screw pump that was used to irrigate the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The world's first seagoing steamship with a screw propeller was the SS Archimedes, which was launched in 1839 and named in honor of Archimedes and his work on the screw.
The tomb of Archimedes carried a sculpture illustrating his favorite mathematical proof, consisting of a sphere and a cylinder of the same height and diameter. Archimedes had proven that the volume and surface area of the sphere are two thirds that of the cylinder including its bases. In 75 BC, 137 years after his death, the Roman orator Cicero was serving as quaestor in Sicily. He had heard stories about the tomb of Archimedes, but none of the locals were able to give him the location. Eventually he found the tomb near the Agrigentine gate in Syracuse, in a neglected condition and overgrown with bushes. Cicero had the tomb cleaned up, and was able to see the carving and read some of the verses that had been added as an inscription. A tomb discovered in the courtyard of the Hotel Panorama in Syracuse in the early 1960s was claimed to be that of Archimedes, but there was no compelling evidence for this and the location of his tomb today is unknown.
A test of the Archimedes heat ray was carried out in 1973 by the Greek scientist Ioannis Sakkas. The experiment took place at the Skaramagas naval base outside Athens. On this occasion 70 mirrors were used, each with a copper coating and a size of around five by three feet (1.5 by 1 m). The mirrors were pointed at a plywood mock-up of a Roman warship at a distance of around 160 feet (50 m). When the mirrors were focused accurately, the ship burst into flames within a few seconds. The plywood ship had a coating of tar paint, which may have aided combustion. A coating of tar would have been commonplace on ships in the classical era.
The last words attributed to Archimedes are "Do not disturb my circles", a reference to the circles in the mathematical drawing that he was supposedly studying when disturbed by the Roman soldier. This quote is often given in Latin as "Noli turbare circulos meos," but there is no reliable evidence that Archimedes uttered these words and they do not appear in the account given by Plutarch. Valerius Maximus, writing in Memorable Doings and Sayings in the 1st century AD, gives the phrase as "...sed protecto manibus puluere 'noli' inquit, 'obsecro, istum disturbare'" - "... but protecting the dust with his hands, said 'I beg of you, do not disturb this.'" The phrase is also given in Katharevousa Greek as "μὴ μου τοὺς κύκλους τάραττε!" (Mē mou tous kuklous taratte!).
The foremost document containing the work of Archimedes is the Archimedes Palimpsest. In 1906, the Danish professor Johan Ludvig Heiberg visited Constantinople and examined a 174-page goatskin parchment of prayers written in the 13th century AD. He discovered that it was a palimpsest, a document with text that had been written over an erased older work. Palimpsests were created by scraping the ink from existing works and reusing them, which was a Common practice in the Middle Ages as vellum was expensive. The older works in the palimpsest were identified by scholars as 10th century AD copies of previously unknown treatises by Archimedes. The parchment spent hundreds of years in a monastery library in Constantinople before being sold to a private collector in the 1920s. On October 29, 1998 it was sold at auction to an anonymous buyer for $2 million at Christie's in New York. The palimpsest holds seven treatises, including the only surviving copy of On Floating Bodies in the original Greek. It is the only known source of The Method of Mechanical Theorems, referred to by Suidas and thought to have been lost forever. Stomachion was also discovered in the palimpsest, with a more complete analysis of the puzzle than had been found in previous texts. The palimpsest is now stored at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland, where it has been subjected to a range of modern tests including the use of ultraviolet and x-ray light to read the overwritten text.
In October 2005 a group of students from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology carried out an experiment with 127 one-foot (30 cm) square mirror tiles, focused on a mock-up wooden ship at a range of around 100 feet (30 m). Flames broke out on a patch of the ship, but only after the sky had been cloudless and the ship had remained stationary for around ten minutes. It was concluded that the device was a feasible weapon under these conditions. The MIT group repeated the experiment for the television show MythBusters, using a wooden fishing boat in San Francisco as the target. Again some charring occurred, along with a small amount of flame. In order to catch fire, wood needs to reach its autoignition temperature, which is around 300 °C (570 °F).
When MythBusters broadcast the result of the San Francisco experiment in January 2006, the claim was placed in the category of "busted" (or failed) because of the length of time and the ideal weather conditions required for combustion to occur. It was also pointed out that since Syracuse faces the sea towards the east, the Roman fleet would have had to attack during the morning for optimal gathering of light by the mirrors. MythBusters also pointed out that conventional weaponry, such as flaming arrows or bolts from a catapult, would have been a far easier way of setting a ship on fire at short distances.
This is a description of a planetarium or orrery. Pappus of Alexandria stated that Archimedes had written a manuscript (now lost) on the construction of these mechanisms entitled On Sphere-Making. Modern research in this area has been focused on the Antikythera mechanism, another device built c. 100 BC that was probably designed for the same purpose. Constructing mechanisms of this kind would have required a sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing. This was once thought to have been beyond the range of the Technology available in ancient times, but the discovery of the Antikythera mechanism in 1902 has confirmed that devices of this kind were known to the ancient Greeks.
In December 2010, MythBusters again looked at the heat ray story in a special edition entitled "President's Challenge". Several experiments were carried out, including a large scale test with 500 schoolchildren aiming mirrors at a mock-up of a Roman sailing ship 400 feet (120 m) away. In all of the experiments, the sail failed to reach the 210 °C (410 °F) required to catch fire, and the verdict was again "busted". The show concluded that a more likely effect of the mirrors would have been blinding, dazzling, or distracting the crew of the ship.
The story of the golden crown does not appear in the known works of Archimedes. Moreover, the practicality of the method it describes has been called into question, due to the extreme accuracy with which one would have to measure the water displacement. Archimedes may have instead sought a solution that applied the principle known in hydrostatics as Archimedes' principle, which he describes in his treatise On Floating Bodies. This principle states that a body immersed in a fluid experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. Using this principle, it would have been possible to compare the density of the crown to that of pure gold by balancing the crown on a scale with a pure gold reference sample of the same weight, then immersing the apparatus in water. The difference in density between the two samples would cause the scale to tip accordingly. Galileo considered it "probable that this method is the same that Archimedes followed, since, besides being very accurate, it is based on demonstrations found by Archimedes himself." In a 12th-century text titled Mappae clavicula there are instructions on how to perform the weighings in the water in order to calculate the percentage of silver used, and thus solve the Problem. The Latin poem Carmen de ponderibus et mensuris of the 4th or 5th century describes the use of a hydrostatic balance to solve the Problem of the crown, and attributes the method to Archimedes.
The works of Archimedes were written in Doric Greek, the dialect of ancient Syracuse. The written work of Archimedes has not survived as well as that of Euclid, and seven of his treatises are known to have existed only through references made to them by other authors. Pappus of Alexandria mentions On Sphere-Making and another work on polyhedra, while Theon of Alexandria quotes a remark about refraction from the now-lost Catoptrica. During his lifetime, Archimedes made his work known through correspondence with the mathematicians in Alexandria. The writings of Archimedes were first collected by the Byzantine Greek Architect Isidore of Miletus (c. 530 AD), while commentaries on the works of Archimedes written by Eutocius in the sixth century AD helped to bring his work a wider audience. Archimedes' work was translated into Arabic by Thābit ibn Qurra (836–901 AD), and Latin by Gerard of Cremona (c. 1114–1187 AD). During the Renaissance, the Editio Princeps (First Edition) was published in Basel in 1544 by Johann Herwagen with the works of Archimedes in Greek and Latin. Around the year 1586 Galileo Galilei invented a hydrostatic balance for weighing metals in air and water after apparently being inspired by the work of Archimedes.